Search engines have a pivotal role on the world wide web and much power because of it. The formula they use for generating search rankings is secret and proprietary and may generate all sorts of biases by accident or design. It is therefore important that the search facility on the Interactive Democracy web site is controlled and approved by parliament and not a commercial add on.
Thursday, 29 May 2008
Friday, 23 May 2008
Given that voters may be tracked by postcode, reviews of local services may be carried on the Interactive Democracy system. These may generate feedback on police, national health or council services, for example, and the system may be used to measure local support for public works such as by-passes or rail links.
This adds considerably to the value and utility of the ID system infrastructure.
It would be possible for the Government to use the Interactive Democracy system to involve everyone in National Reviews. For example the government may want suggestions for the National Curriculum in schools. The review may last 1 to 6 months with suggestions organised around topics by the web master as suggestions come in. There may be Government suggestions too and the public could vote their support.
It would be particularly useful, in this example, to allow children to vote and to analyse the votes by age group.
Would the electorate always vote for lower taxes, in their own self interest?
Governments need tax revenue to provide the services that voters want. The real question is "Will the voters want to have their cake and eat it?" or will they understand and appreciate the wider perspective; the difficult decisions that must be taken to prioritise the use of scarce resources. Government cannot be held accountable for "delivering" if they haven't been given the appropriate resources. It is a matter of faith that the majority will put aside their self interest for the good of the nation.
Would voters be able to seize control of public sector pay negotiations?
Voters are customers of the public sector. The ability for the majority to directly influence pay may have a subtle impact on the quality of services being offered. On the other hand it may also reduce the likelihood of disruptive and damaging strikes.
Would the electorate be able to seize control of the Bank of England Base Rate? First a law would have to be passed to allow it.
This would have a major impact on mortgages and savings, pitting one group against another for economic benefit. However, many voters would also see the big economic picture and be swayed by arguments from economic experts. Others may pass their votes to those they trust, using Liquid Democracy. They may give their votes to various economics professors, politicians or even the Chair of the Bank of England.
A recipe for turmoil you may say. However, the calming balm is that what is good for the economy is good for all of us in the long run.
Thursday, 22 May 2008
Karl Marx understood that economics always leads politics. He suggested that government can do little to control the business cycle and that trying to delay it would ultimately make slow downs more dramatic and painful.
Would Interactive Democracy have a negative impact on the political/business cycle? Would it undermine "prudent" financial governance and the control of inflation? Would voters demand action to alleviate short term financial pain only to be worse off in the long run?
To my mind this all comes back to good leaders with good arguments persuading voters of their case. Some may say that it is virtually impossible to explain the complexities of economics to the average voter, but credible leaders don't have to, they just need to identify the consequences of any particular decision.
This essay (from Internet & Democracy at Harvard Law School) looks at how the Internet is already effecting democracy. It looks at the "three faces of power", Emerson's "Mechanisms of Power" and is illustrated by a number of examples. Worth a look!
The police recently voted for the right to strike after the government cynically refused the independent recommendations of a 2.5% pay increase in order to keep inflation under control. Interactive Democracy offers organisations such as the Police Federation an alternative means of putting pressure on government policy, should they be able to garner sufficient public support.
Strikes are usually a power battle between employers and employees with customers as collateral damage. Interestingly, Interactive Democracy gives more power to public sector customers and may reduce the need for damaging strikes.
Wednesday, 21 May 2008
The internet encourages the emergence of opinion leaders from any 'level' of society. Personal stories may be one of the best contributions an individual can make to a political debate. Unlike academic arguments, moral posturing or statistics, personal stories convey an immediacy of experience that can carry far more weight and may help root policy in reality.
The conventional media tells some powerful personal stories and is supplemented by blogs and video posts that allow anyone to contribute. (An example is this blog by Adrian Sudbury, which was highlighted by BBC Breakfast TV and seeks to encourage bone marrow donations.)
In December 2003, BBC Radio's Today Programme solicited ideas from its listeners for a new law. The winning proposal 'to use any means to defend their homes from intruders' was supported by 26000 votes. MP Stephen Pound, who was charged with presenting the proposal to Parliament, denounced it as "ludicrous, brutal, unworkable, bloodstained piece of legislation.... the people have spoken - the bastards!"
The proposal was probably a reaction to the conviction of Tony Martin who shot two intruders, but it highlights some important lessons for Interactive Democracy:
- Proposals may convey public sentiment on well publicised issues
- Proposals may not be written to cover loop holes, as we would expect with formal law
- Proposals may not be based on the full awareness of the present law and may not easily integrate with it (e.g. there is legislation about weaponry)
This highlights the need for Parliamentary review and refinement of proposals. Which may lead to a reaffirmation of the current law or, in this case, perhaps, greater clarification of the legal term "reasonable force".
Tuesday, 20 May 2008
Oxbridge graduates dominate the highest echelons of the civil service, in all its varied guises, causing some to worry about a lack of empathy with the less fortunate in society and, in turn, the verasity of policies designed to alleviate depravation. Interactive Democarcy introduces the experience of those at all levels of society to each and every Parliamentary Bill. But it doesn't undermine the hierarchy where the brightests and best educated reach the top.
Monday, 19 May 2008
It is thought by some people that Interactive Democracy undermines the hierarchy that is so essential for large governmental organisations to get things done. But ID is designed to decide what should be done, not how to make it happen. It is then the role of the elected government to work with civil servants to implement the new directive.
Granted, not everything we may like to happen is actually possible, which is why parliament and government must help refine and define the practicable choices that may be eventually put to the electorate. Remember, civil servants are voters too and their input to ID is highly valued. The more senior civil servants may be well placed to contribute to the public debate, via the media, and influence the overall vote. They may also make suggestions in the first stage of Interactive Democracy (Ideas Engine).
Friday, 16 May 2008
It is not he function of Parliament to govern but to "call to account those that do govern", as Gladstone said in 1869. But it's remarkable to me to consider the recent 10% tax rate debacle, not because the Government, which prides itself both on its working class roots and on its economic stewardship, made such a mistake, but because there was such limited opposition to the policy when it was first announced in the Commons. Was it because the Conservative Party leadership missed its implications or did they say, amongst themselves, "Excellent, we can use that to attack Labour at the next General Election, let's save our opposition until then".
The latter strategy may be sensible for getting into power, but does nothing for preventing ill conceived policies from doing damage: even after amendments, the 10% tax policy leaves some of the poorest worse off. Similarly, if the government steals and implements the oppositions best ideas, they must be discouraged from presenting them in the first place, leaving them and us poorer.
The Interactive Democratic process will enable opposition from the electorate, allowing appropriate and timely criticism and helping to avoid party political power plays that stifle strong ideas and allow poor ones to flourish.
Thursday, 15 May 2008
The current political system elects leaders who then apply themselves to every issue in society, regardless of their expertise on the subject.
Interactive Democracy may encourage other leaders to emerge - leaders with particular skills or expertise in a given area. For example, on issues of crime some journalists may want to present the views of Police Superintendents. Others may report the views of leading academics who have studied crime and are impassioned by their research to contribute to the debate. And it may not just be the conventional media that does the reporting. Academics can publish their papers on-line and individuals can blog on their own experiences.
Any organisation with an interest in an issue may lead their members to vote in a particular way, whether they be the Church, the Unions or the Political Parties. But ultimately every individual casts their own secret vote... unless Liquid Democracy is adopted.
Perhaps Liquid Democracy could be adapted to grant your vote to someone who's opinions you respect on certain issues, only when those issues arise at referendum? As a safeguard, the system would then notify you of how they voted.
Wednesday, 14 May 2008
Would Interactive Democracy scupper the Bank of England's own brand of tough love? Would the electorate demand control over Interest Rates? Could they demand public sector pay rises? Would they be im-prudent?
Again, the principle of leadership is essential in educating voters to make the most sensible choices. However, if such issues were to be addressed by referendum, its outcome may be less than clear, leaving the markets guessing about the result and separating these issues from Party Politics and electioneering in much the same way that the Bank of England does with Interest Rates today.
Liquid Democracy is a concept where any individual may give their vote to another person, who may then give their vote to yet another. This enables others to vote on your behalf and is a way of deferring to someone you believe in. It is one way of solving the problem of people not having the time to consider every issue.
Liquid Democracy could become part of Interactive Democracy but may leave the door open to coercion and corruption, though such cases would be deterred by the criminal law.
Other organisations, public institutions or businesses, could conceivably want to poll their members. They may want to set up their own ID system but the government may consider renting out the national system if it has enough capacity. The ID infrastructure may be viewed in the same way as we consider National Grid or the rail infrastructure today.
The results of using ID for these purposes would be considered private and the security of the polls may carry the full weight of the law.
For some interesting insight into radical organisation structures in business see "Maverick" by Ricardo Semler.
Like any other organisation, Unions may utilise Interactive Democracy to mobilise the wider public in support of their aims. Acting together, Union members may establish sufficient support to force Parliament to consider their issues and put their proposals to a national vote.
Friday, 9 May 2008
In 1968 a march against the Vietnam War was estimated to number 100 000 people. In February 2003 British police estimated 750 000 marched against a new war in Iraq (other analysts estimated 2 million were involved), which was reflected in similar demonstrations around the world. It had no visible effect on government policy!
Interactive Democracy provides a system to give demonstrators real political power, should they be able to persuade the majority of their views.
Gladstone told parliament in 1869 "Your business is not to govern the country... But it is, if you see fit, to call to account those that do govern it."
This isn't a role that Interactive Democracy would undermine. In fact, I believe Parliament should be reinforced in its ability to gather information and question the government on behalf of the electorate... as we may express through the Interactive Democracy system.
Some may sense a flavour of the discredited Anarchist movement in the concept of Interactive Democracy. Nothing could be further from the truth. ID builds on Law and Order and reinforces collective responsibility not "anything goes" individual freedoms.
Sometimes parents have to make harsh decisions for the long term good of their children. Sometimes governments may adopt a similar attitude and fly in the face of public opinion. They believe, as rulers, that they are right and their decisions are for the common good. This is an argument sometimes put forward for Parliamentary Democracy.
The electorate aren't children. They have foresight and are willing to suffer for what they believe to be right: witness the efforts and sacrifices made in WWII, for example. They are also capable, as jurors, of dealing with complex decisions with serious outcomes.
Interactive Democracy may be seen, in some ways, as a coming of age: Instead of being ruled, the electorate begin ruling themselves.
A cornerstone of Parliamentary Democracy is that the elected represent the views of the electorate. Do they really? If so, how do they know what is the view of the majority of their constituents on any one issue?
Though MPs may take heed of the views of those people who attend their surgeries (the typical voter?) and many others that they talk to, that isn't the same as discovering the majority view. In fact it would be impossible to gather that information by conversation alone given the vast range of issues and the fact that a statistically significant sample will typically run to hundreds if not thousands of people, chosen to represent the wider demographics.
Do MPs instigate opinion polls in their constituencies? Very, very rarely!
Sure, electorates exert some pressure on their MPs when it's time for re-election, but who wins may have more to do with personal like ability than policy.... and which of many policies does the vote express an opinion on? How many voters even know how their candidates voted on any particular issue?
Interactive Democracy will give a far truer representation of the electorate's view - put simply, it asks them!
Friday, 2 May 2008
For Interactive Democracy to work there must be the opportunity for people to absorb different points of view. Traditionally the newspapers had a massive influence on peoples votes but that may be changing with multiple TV and Radio news stations and now the Internet. Even emailed Newsletters and Blogs may be powerful tools for credible leaders to convey their message. All of this devolution of influence means that the electorate are better informed and less biased than ever before.
In the previous post I mentioned that Paddy Ashdown had called into question the ability of the electorate to make the 'right' choice. My view is that it is the role of leaders to explain what the 'right' choice is.
On the "Question Time" programme Paddy suggested that if it was put to the electorate we may well see the return of hanging, for example.
A leader may say "Imagine your DNA was found at a crime scene, you don't have an alibi, but someone matching your description was seen leaving the crime scene. You knew the victim, in fact you'd argued with him recently. You are about to be hung... only you know you are innocent.
"Imagine it wasn't you but your daughter with the noose around her neck!"
The Internet generation may even view a hanging on You Tube (it looks/feels like murder to me). They may look up and view Michael Portillo's programme about humane killing (a BBC programme I think) and find statistics on miscarriages of justice. Maybe TV companies would show their back catalogue of such films in the weeks leading up to a vote on the subject. And air time would be given to Paddy and his opposition politicians.
Recently, on the BBC's "Question Time", I heard Paddy Ashdown say that the electorate sometimes get it wrong. I'm sure the minority of voters in many elections think that the majority have made a mistake, and I'm sure that many leaders, especially those with the type of detailed knowledge that Paddy has, despair over the lack of insight that the general population display. The problem is, Who decides what is right and wrong? How do we check that it's wrong?And if it becomes evident that it's wrong, How do we change it?